What is cavitation?
Cavitation — is the process of disruption in the continuous flow of liquid, it is related to the area of natural sciences (more precisely – physics). The flow of liquid is disrupted due to the creation of empty cavities full of gas and vapor, as a result of local decrease in liquid’s pressure. Under this pressure (once it reaches a certain level) a bubble of gas is formed.
This change of liquid’s pressure can be caused either by the increase in its velocity (cavitation), or under the influence of high intensity acoustic wave (acoustic cavitation). When the cavitation bubble is being moved by the flow to a region with high pressure, it implodes creating a shock wave.
 
In its essence cavitation is quite similar to boiling of the liquid, differing from it only be the locality of the process during cavitation, in contrast to boiling, during which phase of the liquid is changed due to the increased pressure created by vapor, this pressure is increased for the whole volume of the liquid.
 
The gasses dissolved in the liquid are being released inside the cavitation bubbles, their temperature changes depending on the pressure within the bubble and can go up to 1500 degrees Celsius. Besides that the concentration of oxygen within liquid is more than concentration of oxygen in atmospheric air, thus the gasses in cavitation bubbles are more aggressive in their chemical structure then in atmospheric air.
 
Chemical aggression and the destructive force of a shock wave create negative consequences of cavitation for the surfaces which come in contact with the liquid: hydroturbines, screw propellers, pumps. The cavitation also explains the noise and vibration generated during the work of these mechanisms.
 
Cavitation can also be used for our benefits in military (supersonic cavitation torpedoes), cavitation cleaning of hard surfaces, cavitation is also used to homogenize particles in colloidal solution, fragmentation of hard substances (including Nephrolithiasis)

To protect mechanisms from destructive effects of cavitations special modifications are being used to prevent cavitation, the mechanisms are also supplied by protective surfaces.

The effect of cavitation is used by “Nanomix” company to create chelated microfertilizers, which already proved their effectiveness in growing of all main types of agricultural crops